Acids and water
Acids react with water molecules to form hydrogen ions . Acidic solutions have an excess of hydrogen ions over hydroxide ions. The acids we commonly use in the laboratory are:
- Hydrochloric, HCl
- Sulphuric, H2SO4
- Nitric, HNO3
Neutralising acids with bases.
- The acidity of an acid can be neutralised by removing the excess of hydrogen ions
Substances that remove hydrogen ions and neutralise acids are called bases.
Chemically all metal oxides and hydroxides are bases.
Bases that are soluble in water have a special name. They are called alkalis e.g. Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide