Rangitoto is Auckland’s youngest volcano. Early eruptions broke out under the sea about 600 million years ago.
Maori inhabitants on nearbye Motutapu witnessed these eruptions leaving trace footprints in ash. Scoria.
As with all volcanos in the Auckland the driving force for activity on the surface is the subduction of the pacific plate beneath the australian plate.
fountained from a central cone and basalt lava flowed freely from its base, overlapping to produce a symetrical shield shape. Mangere mountain is another example of a scoria cone.
The lava flows cooled to from a hard crust on the surface. In places this was broken into slabs by the drag effect of lava flowing beneath.
Lava sometimes drained to leave behind caves which are now open to view after roof collapse.
On the foreshore at the wharf thick syrupy flows can be seen.
Older volcanos North head and mountain Victoria lie accross the Waitemata.
After 600 years there is very little soil on the surface of rocks for plants to grow.
Mosses and lichens would have been the first colonisers. As they died a thin layer of humus formed
Pohutukawa were the first trees to take hold in a very dry environment. The base rock is porous.
After wind borne invaders arrived they attracted birds who brought with them more seeds to grow and develop.
How to get there.
By Fullers Ferries from Auckland Wharf. The cruise out to Rangitoto also offers the option of taking the Volcanic Explorer a tractor drawn train up the volcano rather than walking. You can cover more ground this :
A Field Guide to Auckland by Ewen Cameron, Bruce Hayward and Graeme Murdoch. Published by Random House New Zealand 2001.
Lava And Strata by Lloyd Homer, Phil Moore and Les Kermode. Published by Landscape publications limited in association with The Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences
The Okataiana Volcanic centre lies in the Taupo volcanic zone and there have been several huge explosions in the last 250,000 years. After each eruption the area surrounding the vent collapsed filling the space left by the escaped magma. A large caldera roughly 18km by 25km has formed and less violent eruptions over the last 40,000 years have filled its floor with a mixture of pumice. lava flows and lava domes.
Tarawera volcano had four major eruptions between 18,000 and 800 years ago. The 1886 eruption which formed the Waimangu valley was by comparison a small event but is still the largest in European times. A rift 18 km long opened up in the space of a few hours. Huge volumes of molten basaltic magma and mud resulting from the explosion of the hydrothernal system under Lake Rotomahana were ejected. The eruption destroyed the famous pink and white terraces. Seven small villages in the vicinity of the lake were destroyed with the loss of 120 lives.
Feaures of the valley and the eruption of Mount Tarawere that brought it into existence
the shape of the scoria cone (steep sided compared with Rangitoto a shield volcano where the molten basalt flowed freely without a high gas content.)
major landsape features and processes (explosion crater, large southern cone with a smaller cone to the north) Other landscape features including a breach on the eastern side of the southern cone that allowed basalt to flow freely where the football fields are now. Another minor breach that local Maori had to fortify to prevent incursions by unwelcome guests
Assorted lava bombs and evidence of fire fountaining as volcanic activity waned
Human impact through stone gardens, kumara pits. There was substantial quarying as durable basalt and scoria were removed for building purposes.
Watch out for some of the features in the video of the field trip.
The basaltic magma is produced 70Km below the surface as the pacific plate is subducted beneath the Australian plate. It gradually makes it way to the surface and it is only a matter of time before another volcano joins 50 others dotted accross the Auckland landscape